Security Council
1. Security for Georgia
2. The situation in southern Thailand
3. Measures to eliminate drug trafficking
4. Responsibility to protect civilians in Syria

China's Position on Measures to Eliminate Drug Trafficking (Kabir)
  • What is the problem? How does it affect your country?
There is still illegal drug trade all around the world and two of the active regions border China and China has a high illegal drug production rate. Drug trade paths from the Golden Triangle to get to Europe cut directly through China. China also shares borders with Afghanistan which still produces a large amount of illegal drugs. A number of remote villages in China produce illegal plant drugs and sell it amongst the villagers and foreign tourists. China’s ports are also used for heroin trade.
  • What has your country done to combat the problem?
Ministries in China such as the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Public Security are monitoring the drug trafficking in China. China also participates in a drug control program with Iran,Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan, Russia, and the United States.
  • What are the various “sides” in the debate?
All governments which have to deal with illicit drug trafficking are against the trade.
  • Which aspects of the issue are most important to your country?
The trading aspect of the issue is most important to my country because China is used as an area to transport illegal drugs to Europe and The Americas.
  • How will your country shape the debate at the conference?
I will converse with other delegates before hand to support my resolution by making a supporting speech. I will focus on the trade routes in China and throughout Asia, how to eliminate illegal drug trafficking and the effects of drug trafficking on the world.
  • What arguments will other countries make?
Other nations will make the same argument because drug trade is considered a crime to all countries.
  • How do the positions of other countries affect your country’s position?
The position of other countries will support China’s views on the topic. Some countries will be the producing regions, the transport regions, and some the receiving regions.
  • Is there evidence or statistics that might help to back up your country’s position?
Cities on China’s eastern coast are used as ports to transport heroin to the Americas. Drug traffickers cut right through western China to get towards Europe.

China's Position on Security for Georgia (Kabir)
  • What is the problem? How does it affect your country?
After the 2008 conflict (between Russia and Georgia), Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been recognized as independent countries by some nations (including Russia). Many refugees in Georgia still require shelter, education, job opportunities, protection. Georgia and Russia are not on the best of terms and issues between them need to be resolved. The conflict does not affect my country directly.
  • What has your country done to combat the problem?
No effective actions have been made towards this conflict.
  • What are the various “sides” in the debate?
Georgia and its strong allies do not recognize Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent states. Russia and its allies recognize these two regions as independent states. Georgia and its strong allies care about the security for its civilians, while Russia and its allies do not care about the security situation in Georgia.
  • Which aspects of the issue are most important to your country?
Recognizing Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent states and not to be focusing on the security of the civilians.
  • If your country is not involved with the issue, how can it become involved?
By supporting Russia’s side of the conflict.
  • How will your country shape the debate at the conference?
China will state important facts that Russia believes in.
  • What arguments will other countries make?
Abkhazia and South Ossetia re not independent states. Security for the people of Georgia needs to be established.
  • How do the positions of other countries affect your country’s position?
Georgia’s allies in the Security Council will oppose China’s side of the issue.



Measures to Eliminate Drug Trafficking (Kabir)
Measures to Eliminate Drug Trafficking
  • General Overview of the Topic / UN perspective There is drug trafficking all over the world, the drugs are mainly produced in mainly in South and Central America, Central Asia and South East Asia. The drugs cause people to become murderers or act violently. Drug trafficking in places like the USA and the UK drug trafficking makes billions of dollars a year. Drug trafficking causes problems such as refugees, corruption, undermining of government, increase of all types of crime and destruction of society. The UN has many initiatives and treaties working to eliminate drug trafficking: The UN Drug Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance; Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs; Convention on Psychotropic Substances

  • Major Parties Involved and Their Views
USA – has conducted numerous campaigns combating
drug trafficking in multiple regions, such as in Colombia
Colombia – once one of the leading producers of
cocaine, however with the help of the US‟ Plan Colombia,
drug production has decreased dramatically
Afghanistan – the leading producer of opium, and one of
the countries within the Golden Crescent area
Myanmar – the previous leading producer of opium, and
one of the countries within the Golden Triangle region,
however drug production rates have dropped and many
farmers and drug lords have moved to farming other cash
crops and the tourism industry
  • Key Terms Defined
Golden Triangle: A region including Burma, Vietnam,
Laos, and Thailand, which is known to be one of the
major opium and heroin producing locations in SouthEast Asia
Golden Crescent: A region including Iran, Afghanistan
and Pakistan, known to be one of the major producers of
opium and other illicit drugs in Asia
Psychoactive drugs: Chemical substances that effects
the central nervous system, which causes numerous side
effects
Designer drugs: derivatives of illicit drugs made by
technicians to get around existing drug law
  • Timeline of Events

1839-60 – Britain floods China (during the Qing dynasty)
with opium, and China retaliates by confiscating and
illegalizing the opium trade, leading to the Opium Wars
1988 – The UN Drug Convention Against Illicit Traffic in
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is passed
1961 - Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, an
international treaty which called for the joint prohibition of
certain drugs, is signed
1971 - Convention on Psychotropic Substances, an
international treaty which aims to control psychotropic
drugs, is signed
1997 - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime is
established
  • UN Involvement, Relevant Resolutions, Treaties and Events
(same as UN’s relation part)
  • Possible Solutions
In 1971, under the Nixon era, America launched a campaign
against drug trafficking called „War on Drugs‟ with the aim of
discouraging the production, distribution, and consumption of
illegal psychoactive drugs
To combat drugs, multiple nations, such as China, Singapore,
and Malaysia, began to implement death penalties for drug
trafficking
US launched another campaign under the name „Plan
Colombia‟ with the objective of decreasing drug smuggling and
eliminating drug cartels in Colombia
Nations such as Thailand have given opium and cocaine
farmers incentives in forms of cash crops, which have gotten
many farmers out of the drug production business


Responsibility to Protect Civilians in Syria (Kabir)
  • General Overview of the Topic / UN perspective
Syrians began protesting on January 26, due to multiple reasons such as the lack of an
effective constitution, corrupt government, and unemployment, in order to achieve the
following:
Democratic reforms
Regime change (stepping down of Bashar al-Assad
More civil rights
End of ‘State of Emergency’
Giving more rights to the Kurdish people
In response to the protests, the government has infringed on many human rights and has
been using military forces against civilians, and has been positioning numerous tanks in
villages and cities
UN reports state that more than 5,000 people have been killed as of December 2011
Kurdish people, who made up 10% of the Syrian population, were denied legal citizenship until April 2011
  • Major Parties Involved and Their Views
USA: Called for UN Security Council resolutions against Syria, and becomes
one of he driving forces imposing sanctions against Syria
China: Vetoed Security Council resolutions dealing with the situation in Syria,
as well as abstained during the voting of a UN human rights resolution with the
reasoning that foreign intervention such as sanctions does not help, but the
only solution is to “conduct constructive dialogue and cooperation”
Russia: Also vetoed multiple numerous Security Council resolutions outlining
certain flaws of the resolution such as the fact there were “no provisions against
outside military intervention in Syria” and that “[this approach was] against the
principle of a peaceful settlement of a crisis…
  • Key Terms Defined
State of Emergency: When government suspends some of its functions and
rights during crisis periods, legally
Sanctions: Actions taken by nations against a specific nation due to political
reasons, and can vary from military intervention to banning trade of a certain
item to or from the nation
Kurdish: A group of people that originate from Iran
Syrian National Council (SNC): A political group consisting of 115 to 120
members of Syrian opposition groups, in order to oppose the Assad regime in
Syria as well as to “represent the concerns and the demands of the Syrian
people”
Arab League: A regional organization consisting of all Arab states within the
North African and Middle Eastern region, and works to solve conflicts between
member nations and help them work collaboratively with each other
  • Timeline of Events
January 26th, 2011 – Protest begin with the self-burning of a Syrian civilian
March 15th, 2011 – The situation became an official uprising with the mass demonstration
across Syria leading to around 3,000 arrests
March 18th, 2011 – More mass demonstrations took place across Syria called “Friday of
Dignity”, which the government responded to with water cannons and helicopters and
caused four unconfirmed deaths of civilians
April 19th, 2011 – Bill passed to lift state of emergency which has been going on for 48 years
May 10~19th, 2011 – The European Union (EU) and the US imposed sanctions on
government officials including Bashar al-Assad, due to its oppression of protestors, Syria
was kicked out of their bid for membership on the UN Human Rights Council
May 24th, 2011 – Confirmation that soldiers executed citizens, and the total death toll rose
to over 1,100
August 3rd, 2011 – UN Security Council condemns Syria for human rights violations for
the first time
August 9th, 2011 – The Foreign Minister of Egypt, Mohamed Kamel Amr, criticized the
Syrian government by saying that Syria promising reforms but continuing the violence
against civilians, is “of no use”
August 18th, 2011 – Canada, France, Germany, UK, and the US all called for President alAssad’s resignation
August 23rd, 2011 – The Syrian National Council was formed
September 21st, 2011 – Turkish Prime Minister, Erdogan, cut all ties with Syria and plans
on placing sanctions against Syria
October 2nd, 2011 – The aims and structures of the Syrian National Council were officially
decided
October 4th, 2011 – Turkey threatened to impose sanctions on Syria, although China and
Russia vetoed a Security Council resolution calling for sanctions against Syria
October 28th, 2011 – Syrian soldiers were spotted planting mines along the Lebanese
border, while thousands of protestors called for the establishment of a no-fly zone over
Syria
November 16th, 2011 – Syria’s membership in the Arab League is officially suspended

  • UN Involvement, Relevant Resolutions, Treaties and Events
 A UN document, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, says that:
 “no one shall be subject to arbitrary arrest…” (Article 9)
 “everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent
and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any
criminal charge against him” (Article 10)
 “Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration,
without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political
or other opinion, national or social origin…”
 Neither of these articles are being followed in Syria, as many protesters have faced
arbitrary arrest, execution and exile without a proper trial
  • Possible Solutions
Sanctions have been imposed on numerous products which include oil,
by many nations and organizations, such as USA, Turkey, Arab League,
and the European Union
The Arab League has taken other measures such as freezing
government assets and suspending cooperation with Syria’s central
bank
Suspension of Syria’s membership in the Arab League, and the
withdrawal of foreign diplomats from Syria
UN’s top Human Rights Body is being called to consider establishing a
special investigator for Syria


The Situation in Southern Thailand (Kabir)
  • General Overview of the Topic / UN perspective

Although Thailand is mainly a Buddhist country, many in the Southern region are
Muslims and there are groups, such as the BNPP, that believe that Islamism should be
introduced in Thailand
In Pattani, Yala, and Songhla, these insurgency groups have committed several acts of
violence such as killing policemen, burning tires on roads and setting schools on fire
To combat these insurgency groups, the Prime Minister at that time, Mr. Thaksin
Shinawatra, attempted to control the insurgents by sending in extra military for
protection of civilians in “affected” areas and declaring martial law status over the area.
Violence continued and the Prime Minister started losing control over the situation,
however, he was successful in locating and killing an estimate of 100 insurgents
A coup was launched by Mr. Sonthi Boonyaratglin, who was appointed as the head of
counter-insurgency and was the first Muslim army commander-in-chief in the country’s
history.
  • Major Parties Involved and Their Views

Malaysia: The neighbor of Thailand, that is closely affected by the bombings in the
region, and the origin of the Muslim population in Southern Thailand
  • Key Terms Defined

 Southern Thailand – The sub-region of Thailand which includes the provinces of Satun,
Songhla, Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat
 Insurgency – An organized rebellion aimed at overthrowing a constituted government through
the use of subversion and armed conflict
 Insurgents – A rebel or revolutionary
 Islamism – An Islamic revivalist movement and the attempt to implement Islamic values in all
spheres of life
 National Liberation Front of Patani (BNPP) – An Islamist insurgency group
 National Revolution Front – Coordinate (BRN-C) – An Islamist insurgency group
 Patani Islamic Mujahidin Movement (GMIP) – An Islamic insurgency group
 Patani United Liberation Organization (PULO) – An active separatist movement organization
  • Timeline of Events

 1960: National Liberation Front of Patani was formed
 1960: The original BRN was formed
 1968: PULO was formed
 1970: PULO became very active and committed numerous of acts of violence, specifically
shooting down armed guards or soldiers in the area which intensified the government’s efforts
on trying to capture the insurgent groups
 1980’s : BRN became three different insurgent groups, which were: Congress, Coordinate and
Ulema (Congress and Ulema eventually broke up)
 1995: GMIP was formed
 2000: After a series of failed attempts, Thai authorities managed to locate and eliminate the
PULO leader in a raid

 2004 : Insurgent groups, attacked an army camp, stole weapons, killed 4 soldiers, burned
schools, and committed several other acts of violence
 April 28th, 2004 : In a raid of the insurgent’s main camp, about 100 insurgents were
killed
 July 2006: Mr. Sonthi Boonyaratglin, the first Muslim army commander-in-chief in the
country’s history was appointed as the head of counter-insurgency to try to capture the
insurgents with fresh tactics
 September 16th, 2006: A major city in the Songha region, Hat Yai, was bombed by
insurgents, killing hundreds of people and causing thousands of dollars worth of damage
 2007: Attacks such as car bombings, attacks on schools and shooting down soldiers
continue
  • UN Involvement, Relevant Resolutions, Treaties and Events

 The United Nations has not yet passed resolutions or have any policies on this issue
 The issue is becoming increasingly concerning/alarming and dangerous for everyone in
the area, causing the UN to divert more attention and resources to solving the issue
 The issue is also becoming increasingly known, making it an even more urgent issue that
needs to be solved
 The UN is however debating about solving several other pressing issues, delaying its full
attention towards this issue
 The main reason for UN involvement at this point is the concern for growing terrorist
movements in general, potential cross-border issues between Thailand and Malaysia,
and the need for regional stability in an increasingly stressed region (due to several
territorial disputes and economic competition
  • Possible Solutions
More officers and security guards to stop possible attacks and specialized officers who can find leaders of insurgent groups