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General Assembly (GA)

1. Measures to combat piracy on the high seas

Part 1

China
Kanish Rana


General Overview of the Topic

There are a lot of pirates in the Indian Ocean, especially near Somalia. Now the problems are getting worse. Many pirates are hijacking ships and are asking for a high amount of ransom. Pirates are also stealing ships, and taking their load such as weapons, oil, money, etc. Pirates have received about 120million dollars in ransom. It is also believed that the kidnapping in Kenya and the piracy in Somalia and the piracy in the gulf of Guinea might all be connected.

Major Parties Involved and Their Views

South China Sea and the Malacca Strait, and the Indian Ocean are the most common places that pirates are found. Most pirates come from the east coast of African and the west coast. The most affected countries are Puntland and Somalia. A lot of people from these areas are now moving to Italy, Canada, UK, Kenya, Australia and USA. They are going there so that they can find better jobs.

Somalia and sri lanka are the countries that are involved in piracy. Europe, North American countries, india US, and China are the main countries that are trying to stop this problem.

Key Terms Defined


Maritime Mugging: The common act of piracy that is associated with the stealing of objects of value

Maritime: Connected with the sea

High Seas: The open ocean; a body of water that is not within any nation’s jurisdiction (control)

Pirate-A person who attacks and robs ships at sea

Hijacked- Illegally seize (an aircraft, ship, or vehicle) in transit and force it to go to a different destination or use it for one's own purposes.

Ransom- A sum of money or other payment demanded or paid for the release of a prisoner.

Timeline of Events

In December1999: A Chinese court issues death sentences to 13 pirates who murdered the entire crew of an Asian shipping company.

In july 2005: Pirates hijack a ship carrying relief supplies for Somali survivors of the tsunami, demanding a $500,000 ransom to free the crew.

In July 2006:In the first sign of a military crackdown, US navy officers fire warning shots at suspected pirates in Somalia‘s lawless coastal waters. The band of pirates is then detained.

August 2006: After holding 25 Asian fishermen captive for four months, Somali pirates free the crew after reportedly receiving a massive ransom from the South Korean owners of the Dongwon-ho.

February 2007: Pirates hijack a cargo ship delivering UN food aid to north-eastern Somalia.

October 2008: International Maritime Bureau issues an urgent warning after a ship with 21 crew members is seized by pirates.The ransom demand for the hijacked Ukrainian ship carrying tanks and weapons is $8 million.

November 2008: Three British security guards jump into the sea after coming under heavy attack from pirates using rocket-propelled grenades. The Indian and
Bangladeshi crew are left on board the chemical tanker, which is subsequently hijacked.

December 2008: In the biggest naval operation by China in more than 600 years, the Chinese naval fleet joins an international force in Somalia to battle pirates.

February 2009: A Ukrainian arms ship carrying tanks and grenade launchers is captured. It will later earn pirates a $3.2 million ransom payoff.

August 2009: A 4,000 ton timber vessel bound for Algeria disappears off the French coast. A search for the boat, its Russian crew, and the $1 million cargo lost in the
vast Arctic sea ensues.

November 2009: Pirates attack a supertanker worth millions off the coast of Somalia as the 28-crew ship moves crude oil from Saudi Arabia to the US.

December 2009: The UK government announces it will not issue payments to hostage-takers.

February 2010: With Somali pirates threatening tourism and fishing industries around Seychelles, the islands report plans to build special courts and jails to combat the growing menace.


UN Involvement, Relevant Resolutions, Treaties and Events

Navies from around the world are now securing the Indian Ocean. Thanks to this many pirates are now being arrested. The UN is now planning to target the masterminds in piracy so that they can capture them.

Many defense measures are being implemented in most cargo ships, such as high-powered hoses, and electric fences. This will give people a chance against piracy.


Possible Solutions

I think a possible solution to this is that all the ships that go into that region, should have some people from the army or navy or even police. I think this because if the pirates try to capture the ship, the police/navy/army has a chance to stop them and capture them.

Another possible solution is to send more people from most countries to protect the sea. I think this because since piracy affects a lot of countries, they also need to contribute to stop piracy.

Another solution is to capture the pirates when they are on land. Every pirate needs fuel, needs to repair etc. So they must come to land a few times.

What we could also do is make more jobs in Somalia. I think this because a lot of people who don’t get jobs in Somalia end up being pirates, but if there are mor jobs, less people would want to become pirates.

Part 3
China
Kanish

What is the problem? How does it affect your country?


The problem is piracy in the high sea and how it has increased and become more violent over the past few years. There is piracy around China but there are also a lot of pirates in different countries such as, Somalia, Sri Lanka and West Africa. Since China is the largest exporter of goods, its ships are being attacked by hijackers.


What has your country done to combat the problem?

China used to focus on protecting its own ships but now (in 2010) China is working with many countries such as European countries, UK, US, NATO, etc. They are also taking part in patrolling the seas and capturing pirates. China has been very successful because in 2007, there were about 31 attacks in the South China Sea. But in 2010 there was only one reported attack, even though 2010 was the year with the most pirate attacks. This proves that patrolling the sea is a good way to stop piracy.

What are the various “sides” in the debate?

There are two main sides in the debate, the pirate’s and the countries that are trying to stop them. The pirates are mostly in the east and west coast of Africa. The main countries that are trying to stop piracy are U.K, US, European countries, NATO and China.

Which aspects of the issue are most important to your country?
China wants to stop piracy because China is the one of the largest exporting nations in the world, which means it has lot of ships carrying goods across the oceans. China also requires lot of raw materials for its factories which is imported via ships. Hence China economy is in danger if there is any rapid increase in piracy.

If your country is not involved with the issue, how can it become involved?
China is involved.

How will your country shape the debate at the conference?

  • Piracy is a big problem worldwide. It is also a big threat to global trade.
  • The main regions that are affected are the east and west coast of Africa. Other region are also affected such as South China Sea, Caribbean, and South East Asia.
  • Our government has put a lot of effort to stop piracy in the South China Sea. The results show that Piracy in the South China Sea has dropped my more than ½ of the amount attacks in the South China Sea.
  • Somaliland pirates are responsible for 56% of all pirate attacks.
  • Countries need to work together to stop piracy. They should use more resources and also have more co-ordination.
What arguments will other countries make?
Most countries will agree that piracy is a bad thing and a crime. But there will be arguments about how much effort every country needs to put in.

How do the positions of other countries affect your country’s position?


Is there evidence or statistics that might help to back up your country’s position?

Somali pirates are accounted for 54 % of the global attacks with 237 cases, up from 219 in 2010.
Pirate attacks in the South China Sea plunged to 13, from 31 in 2010. Bangladesh also showed improvement with only 10 attacks, from 23 in 2010, thanks to initiatives taken by its coast guards.
This shows that if people spend more time patrolling the seas like China and Bangladesh then maybe even other countries could decrease the amount of pirate attacks.


http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2012/01/06/world/20120107_PIRATES_GOBIG.html?ref=world#1

2. Peace and security for the Palestinian territories
Ask for the UpFront article I have

3. Addressing the arms build up in South and Central America

4. Addressing the issue of drug related violence and its impact on regional security in South and Central America


Part 1
Ananya Williams
Myanmar


Drug Related Violence


Overview on the Topic:

Drug related violence is cause by the buying and selling of drugs. The problem is that lots of Drug Cartels in South America want to get control of routes to the lucrative drug markets in the U.S , because of this these gangs are killing people and giving them death threats so they will scare the government into giving them control. This violence has been going on for 4 years and more than 34,000 people have been killed, including the 15,000 killed last year alone. It’s not just regular citizens getting killed though it’s also members of different rivalry drug gangs.


Major Parties Involved and Their Views:

Central America is involved because most of these drug cartels want the routes to the drug markets in the U.S. Central America is also involved by trying to help stop drug cartels and their violence to the citizens of South America.


Key Terms Defined:

Narcotics- Illegal substances that provide a temporary high and have many negative side effects.

Cartels- A group of people working together to sell and buy illegal materials such as weapons and narcotics. Most of the time cartels are violent.

Drug Related Violence- Any type of violence caused by the buying and selling of narcotics.

South America- A continent containing: Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Suriname.

Transit Countries- A country that is used as a temporary storage/moving area for drugs.

UN Drug Convention- One of the 3 major drug conventions. Over 180 countries are party to this resolution.


Timeline of Events:


1961: Single Drug Convention.
1971: Convention of Psychotropic Substances.
1988: United Nations Convention against illicit traffic of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
2003: United Nations convention against corruption.
-------: United Nations convention against Transnational Organized Crime.



UN Involvement, Relevant Resolutions, Treaties and Events:

  • The United Nations has passed multiple resolutions and treaties on these issues: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/index.html
  • Recently, many people are calling for peacekeepers in Mexico and surrounding the Mexican borders.
  • The UN is observing the current situation in Central and South America and has peacekeepers ready to send in if any violence arises.


Possible Solutions:

  • An ideal resolution could decrease drug related violence within the next six months and slowly eliminate it in the next 10 years.
  • Secure the USA’s borders, as well as borders of other major transit countries and consumer countries
  • Have more secure checks of cartons and boxes that may might contain drugs, as well as more checkpoints on the borders of major consumer/transit countries.